Nazivlje u Markovićevoj Etici
Bojan Marotti - Izvorni znanstveni članak
Terminology in Marković’s Ethics
Hrvatski filozof i književnik Franjo pl. Marković u svome je filozofiranju veliku pozornost posvećivao nazivlju, i to kako nazivlju općenito, tako posebice filozofskomu nazivlju. Ta se njegova skrb za nazivlje u ovome članku pokazuje na primjeru Etike. Iz toga je spisa odabrano dvjesto riječi, od kojih se većina može smatrati filozofskim ili, u širem smislu, znanstvenim nazivcima, ali ima među njima i takvih koje pripadaju u opći jezik. Da bi se provjerilo koliko je od tih riječi potvrđeno u hrvatskome jeziku, odabrano je šest hrvatskih rječnika, i to: Parčićev Vocabolario croato-italiano (1901.), Akademijin rječnik (1880.-1976.), Broz-Ivekovićev Rječnik hrvatskoga jezika (1901.), Šonjin Rječnik hrvatskoga jezika (2000.), Anićev Veliki rječnik hrvatskoga jezika (2004.) i Veliki rječnik hrvatskoga standardnog jezika glavne urednice Ljiljane Jojić (2015.). Potom je provedena usporedba i izvršena potanka raščlamba. Zaključak je da najviše navedenih Markovićevih riječi postoji u Akademijinu i u Parčićevu rječniku, nešto manje od 55 %, dočim preostala četiri rječnika imaju ili malo manje od 20 % (Broz-Iveković, Šonje i Anić) ili malo više od 20 % (Jojić). Ti podatci istodobno pokazuju i Markovićevu skrb za (filozofsko) nazivlje, ali ujedno i stanje u kojem se danas nalazi hrvatski (književni) jezik, što posebice vrijedi za rječnike »suvremenoga« jezika, gdje se može potvrditi jedva dvadesetak posto navedenih riječi. A valja biti svjestan da bi taj postotak zacijelo bio još porazniji da se sličnoj razglobi podvrgne golema Markovićeva Logika. Na kraju se predlaže da se kritički objavi cjelokupna Markovićeva ostavština, i to ne samo zato da bi Markovićeva misao bila dostupna, nego i zato da se omogući uvid u silno bogatstvo filozofskoga nazivlja koje nam u svojim djelima nudi Franjo pl. Marković.
Croatian philosopher, writer, and theatre and literary critic, the noble Franjo Marković (1845-1914), the first professor of philosophy at the restored University of Zagreb (1874), was born in Križevci, a small town in north-western Croatia. He attended the gymnasium at the Nobility Boarding School in Zagreb (1854-1862), and then studied Classics, Slavic studies, and philosophy in Vienna (1862-1865). He graduated in 1865, and the next year he passed his gymnasium professorship exam. He worked as an assistant at gymnasia in Osijek and Zagreb. In 1870, after one political protest, he left his service and went to Vienna for further study of philosophy, where he bacame a student of Herbart’s follower Robert Zimmermann, receiving his PhD in philosophy in 1872. He returned to Zagreb, becoming editor of Vienac (1872-1873). In 1874 he was appointed as the first head of the Department for philosophy and the dean of the Faculty of Philosophy in Zagreb. He became a member of the Academy in 1876, and then rector of the University in the academic year 1881/1882.
He continued to teach until his retirement in 1909.
The Archives of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, as well as the Archives of the Department for the History of Croatian Literature at the Institute for History of the Croatian Literature, Theatre, and Music (which is also part of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts) preserve Marković’s rich manuscript heritage. This heritage contains primarily philosophical manuscripts. They are to a large extent related to lectures (or preparations for lectures) at various stages of completeness, which Marković held to his students at the University until he retired in 1909 and also on later occasions, so to say, until he died. Those manuscripts refer to different sections of philosophy because Marković taught almost all segments of philosophy, from logics to aesthetics, as well as some sciences that are no longer regarded as parts of philosophy, for example psychology and pedagogy.
As the first professor of philosophy with a systematic teaching record, translating and writing in Croatian language (and not Latin, Italian, Hungarian or German), Marković made a substantial impact on the development of Croatian philosophical terminology, because in his philosophy, as it could be seen in manuscripts, Marković paid a great attention to the terminology in general, and especially to the philosophical terminology.
In this paper, his concern for (philosophical) terminology is demonstrated by the example of his Ethics. From this work, two hundred words have been chosen, most of which can be considered philosophical or, broadly speaking, scientific terms, but some of them also belong to the general (or every day) language. To determine how many of these words have been verified in the Croatian language, six Croatian dictionaries were selected, as follows: Dragutin Parčić, Vocabolario croato-italiano (1901), Dictionary of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts (1880-1976), Ivan Broz and Franjo Iveković, Rječnik hrvatskoga jezika (1901), Jure Šonje (ed. in chief), Rječnik hrvatskoga jezika (2000), Vladimir Anić, Veliki rječnik hrvatskoga jezika (2004), and Ljiljana Jojić (ed. in chief), Veliki rječnik hrvatskoga standardnog jezika (2015). After comparing and analyzing, the conclusion was made that the most Marković’s words have been verified in the Dictionary of the Croatian Academy, as well as in the Parčić’s Croatian-Italian Dictionary, somewhat less than 55%, while the remaining four dictionaries contain either less than 20% (Broz-Iveković, Šonje and Anić) or slightly over 20% (Jojić). These numbers show Marković’s concern for (philosophical) terminology, but, at the same time, they also point to the current state of Croatian (literary) language. And this is especially true if we look at the dictionaries of (Croatian) »contemporary« language, where barely twenty percent of Marković’s words can be verified.
Marković is usually understood as an aesthetician, and also as a follower of Johann Friedrich Herbart, but both are doubtful due to the fact that we know very little about Marković’s philosophy as a whole, better to say, we know only some chapters of that whole. Therefore, at the end of the paper, it is proposed that all Marković’s manuscripts should be published, so that the thought of one of the most important Croatian philosophers could finally be researched in its wholeness.
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